A bitcoin mining power plant secretly set up shop in Alberta. Now, it’s being forced to shut down.

When residents of an affluent estate community in Alberta started hearing noise from a nearby power plant, they didn’t expect their complaints of sleepless nights would lead to a months-long investigation that would find the company had set up operations without approval.

Now, Link Global, the company behind the bitcoin mining operation, is being ordered by the province’s utility commission to shut down two plants until it can prove it’s allowed to operate — a move the company says will cost jobs and cause oil and gas infrastructure to sit dormant.

Jeff Kocuipchyk first started hearing the noise last fall. He’s president of the Greystone Manor Community Association, a small neighbourhood located in Sturgeon County about 10 kilometres from the northwest outskirts of Edmonton.

“It differs every time the wind changes direction. It’s just like a wave … but it’s 10 times louder and 100 times more annoying,” Kocuipchyk said. “It’s almost like a plane engine warming up on the tarmac … it’s such a racket that none of my family could sleep.”

Larry Haas, another resident, had been hearing it, too.

“We have a hot tub in the back. We’d go sit and go, hey, what is that airplane landing in our field?” Haas said. “It’s peaceful. That’s part of why you move here. There’s a premium you pay for this kind of place. And then the noise starts and it’s not quiet and peaceful anymore.”

Kocuipchyk said the sound quickly became a topic of discussion among neighbours. Some thought it might be farm equipment. The worst of the noise was heard along a strip of homes that had empty agricultural land to the west, home to what they believed was a defunct natural gas facility.

So, Kocuipchyk decided to investigate. 

“I went over there and … said, ‘What’s this noise?’ I had no idea what a bitcoin mining operation looked like.”

Link Global’s bitcoin mining operation in Sturgeon County consists of four shipping containers filled with computer servers, running the calculations to ‘mine’ the digital currency. A fifth shipping container was set up on site for possible future expansion. (David Bajer/CBC)

Link Global, based in Vancouver, had set up four 1.25 MW gas generators at the site, pulling power from a dormant natural gas well owned by Calgary-based company MAGA Energy.

The natural gas powers thousands of computer servers that run programs to “mine” digital currency. 

Work on the plant began in August 2020, and by fall — when neighbours started to get annoyed — it was operating at full capacity. 

There was just one problem. The company hadn’t notified neighbours of its plans. Or the county. Or the provincial utilities commission — which allows power plants to be set up without approval if they meet several conditions, including only generating power for the company’s own use and proving the plant has no adverse effects on people or the environment.

“Nobody gave us a phone call saying, ‘Hey, we’re going to do this.’

“The lack of respect for being a good neighbour also added to the frustration of it all,” Haas said.

Ten households from Greystone Manor, all located along the west side of the community with backyards facing the plant, complained about the noise to the Alberta Utilities Commission. Eight complainants rated the impact on their quality of life as six out of 10. Three rated the severity as a 10 out of 10.

Some said it made it hard to sleep and even harder to be outside or have the windows open. 

The natural gas plant powering the bitcoin mining facility is located just 685 metres west of the homes of Greystone Manor, in Sturgeon County, Alta. (Hailley Furkalo/CBC)

Riley Georgsen with the AUC said it’s not very common for enforcement to be required, but when complaints like this arise they are taken seriously.

“We have a lot of different expertise at the AUC, whether it’s from engineering or environmental consultation … there can be a variety of different things that need to be looked at to get a full picture of what’s happening,” he said. 

Georgsen said once each complaint is investigated, the AUC’s enforcement team puts together a case, which is reviewed by the AUC commission panel. 

The AUC’s enforcement team quickly started investigating and argued in an application filed in March that the “seriousness and the potential for ongoing harm” meant the plant should be temporarily shut down while the commission considered how to respond to the situation.

AUC enforcement investigators wrote that Link Global initially claimed it had an “extensive history” of consultation with the AUC, Sturgeon County and neighbouring residents — but that the company provided no evidence to back that up. A month later, in June, the company finally acknowledged it didn’t notify or consult local stakeholders, as it said it was “unaware of the statutory and regulatory requirements.” 

Link Global had told the AUC in a January letter that it had done a noise impact assessment that found no change between the plant being turned on and off. 

But it didn’t provide a copy of that noise assessment — instead, it just gave a link to a non-functioning online folder followed by the note “(SORRY LINK IS NOT WORKING).” It also provided a sheet stating the company meets U.S. emission standards but initially provided no evidence as to whether it met Alberta standards. 

The company later told AUC it would contact Alberta Environment and Parks to either seek approval that its operations don’t have serious environmental impacts or obtain confirmation approval is not required.

‘If it’s not gonna work … we’ll just shut it down’

Stephen Jenkins, Link Global’s CEO, is the first to admit the company’s debut in the county didn’t go as smoothly as hoped. 

“It’s my fault. I take full blame for it. We did not consult with residents,” Jenkins said.

Jenkins said as soon as he learned of the noise complaints, the company sent out teams to measure decibel levels in the area. 

The company temporarily shut down operations following the AUC order and began operating only during daytime hours (it took a few days to wind things down, another item of contention in AUC enforcement filings). Link Global also implemented noise abatement measures such as a wall of straw bales and exhaust baffles. 

Jenkins said if there’s more the company can do to make residents happy, it will. Even if it means packing up and going elsewhere.

“If it’s not gonna work there, we’ll just shut it down, close the plant off, and it will sit there again.”

That might come as a surprise, but Jenkins said it’s no trouble to relocate — that fits with how he sees Link Global operating within Alberta’s energy ecosystem.

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Bitcoin mining involves mathematical equations and software instead of coal and pickaxes, but critics argue the digital currency’s massive power requirements make it environmentally destructive like its namesake.

Sara Hastings-Simon, an assistant professor at the University of Calgary’s School of Public Policy, said she questions the potential impacts of projects like this.

“There’s definitely a lot of concern that I think is warranted around the environmental impact of bitcoin and what is the benefit of using all of this energy … and in particular the potential for bitcoin operations to end up extending the lifetime of older energy infrastructure that would otherwise be retired,” she said. 

But Jenkins, who has a background in forestry and international clean energy development, argues the operation can provide an environmental benefit.

“You’re using underutilized or unused power, or even retooling and retasking existing infrastructure. We wouldn’t go in and put a new well in,” he said. 

Neighbours complained about bitcoin mining operation, which is run off generators powered by a natural gas well, to the Alberta Utilities Commission. (David Bajer/CBC)

Alberta is littered with abandoned energy infrastructure, some of which Jenkins said is at risk of leaking methane — a greenhouse gas more potent than carbon dioxide — into the atmosphere.

“We look at, OK, what can we do to use this in a beneficial way … I don’t want to say we’re in the business of methane destruction, but we’re in the business of beneficial use of that potential methane-generating source. You combust it properly. You don’t flare it, and you control those emissions,” Jenkins said. 

Jenkins said the company is also playing around with the idea of using waste heat emitted from computer servers to power greenhouses, bolstering Alberta’s agriculture industry during cold weather.

And though the facility employs only four people, Jenkins said it’s important to him to employ locally and give former oil and gas workers a path into other careers. 

The Sturgeon County plant’s supervisor is a former pipefitter; he’s now a bitcoin pro and an expert at keeping the plant online, Jenkins said.

“It’s a perfect use of people’s skills,” he said. 

A lucrative business

Of course, it’s not all altruism. 

The company has said for every 10 MW of power, it can generate about 1.2 bitcoins per day. Cryptocurrencies are a volatile market and bitcoin’s price has ranged from $30,000 to $63,000 US in 2021. 

“[I’m] coming at this and looking at it and being obviously opportunistic from a business perspective, but being very conscious of the outcomes,” Jenkins said. 

“We want to be running as efficiently as we can because every penny we save on gas and gas consumption, which is ultimately where the emissions come from, that helps us with respect to earning more money.”

More miners across Alberta

Link Global isn’t the first to test this business model in the province. 

Another company, Upstream Data, has been pairing flared natural gas with bitcoin mining data centres in Alberta since 2017. 

And many more could be on the way.

Nevada-based Black Rock Petroleum Company has proposed bringing in up to a million bitcoin mining machines from China — estimated to be about a third of the world’s capacity — to natural gas sites in Alberta, following the country’s ongoing crackdown on cryptocurrency.

The Sturgeon County facility isn’t the only one Link Global is operating in Alberta. It has plants near Kirkwall in Special Area 3 and Westlock, too. The Kirkwall plant was also set up without the AUC’s prior approval.

AUC enforcement investigators have argued Link Global stood to gain from breaking the rules. 

“Since September 2020, Link Global has benefited and continues to benefit, by operating without the burden or limitations associated with ensuring that nearby residents are not adversely affected, that the power plant operates within specified noise levels, and that the power plant does not adversely affect the environment,” the enforcement filing reads.

Jenkins disagreed, but he said in June that the company and AUC were collaborating to find a solution.

“The AUC … we’ve been on very good terms with them because they’re learning as much as we’re learning,” he said. 

If they can’t work it out, he’ll simply move the operation — to another site in Alberta, or Saskatchewan, or B.C. Perhaps one with fewer or more distant neighbours. 

‘We don’t need to cause them any more grief’

Now that’s something Jenkins might have to do.

On Friday, the AUC ruled that both the Sturgeon County and Kirkwall plants were in contravention of the rules.

They have to shut down operations immediately and can only resume once Link Global has proven that it’s either obtained permission under the province’s environmental protection act or confirmation that permission is not required.

The company will also have to pay penalties — a $50,000 to $75,000 fine, reduced by up to 50 per cent because Link Global admitted to breaking the rules.

“The commission does not take lightly that Link Global began operating multiple power plants in a jurisdiction with which it had no familiarity, and failed to conduct a basic level of due diligence to understand the regulatory regime in which it was operating,” the commission ruled.

“However, the nature of the actual harm suffered (in the commission’s view, primarily being the disturbance caused to the residents of Greystone Manor) was transitory and limited in its temporal scope.”

Jenkins said he finds the AUC’s decision fair and was glad it confirmed some parts of the company’s operation, like the requirement that it generate power only for its own use, were in compliance. 

But he said the ruling likely means the Sturgeon County natural gas facility will once again lie dormant and the jobs at the site will be lost.

The company plans to submit documentation to prove the Kirkwall plant meets provincial emissions requirements to keep it up and running. 

“It’s unfortunate … [but] it’s us listening to the community, and we can move,” he said. “The main complaints came from a gated community … we heard it loud and clear. And I don’t think, again, we don’t need to cause them any more grief.”

More penalties could be on the way. The commission will now review whether specific sanctions should be imposed against Link Global for operating without approval — a decision on that is expected this fall.

Kocuipchyk said the investigation shows the need for more regulation or oversight.

“I personally wish that they would have been penalized even more for blatantly not following an AUC order,” Kocuipchyk said.

Kristin Toms, an area councillor, has mixed feelings about seeing the company potentially forced out of Sturgeon County. 

Toms said when she first learned the cause of residents’ noise complaints, “you could have knocked me over with a feather.” She quickly dove into research to learn about bitcoin mining, an industry that was new to her.

Residents say the noise from a nearby bitcoin mining plant was ruining their sleep. The plant has since been ordered to shut down by the Alberta Utilities Commission, which said it is exploring penalties against the plant as it operated without approval. (Hailley Furkalo/CBC)

Toms and the county are on the sidelines of the debate over how to regulate or enforce sanctions against the plant.

“One, it’s on an agricultural parcel of land … so the county is responsible for operating our bylaws, but when you get an oil and gas site, that falls under the purview of the province,” she said. “We have bylaws set up within the county to deal with sort of our standard issues, you know, resident issues [or] agricultural issues. The two things just didn’t meet.”

But Toms is hoping for a solution going forward that will work for businesses and residents alike. The county has seen challenges this past year, from higher unemployment to flooding from increasingly extreme weather. The potential of more jobs is enticing.

“We want to be open for business, but we want those businesses located in a spot that works within the community,” she said. 

“It’s really important to make sure that we’re able to manage our businesses … and our communities so that they’re having a symbiotic relationship as opposed to, unfortunately, friction created between them due to the wrong locations and obviously lax notification.”

But if you ask Kocuipchyk, the company has already burned its bridges. 

“I would like to see them shut down permanently … there are thousands of other abandoned gas wells in Alberta that they could quite easily just go and move to.”

He’s grateful Jenkins is offering to move — whatever will give him and his family a good night’s sleep. 

“When I can look off my patio, into the distance and see those trailers moving out of there, that’s when I’m going to [enjoy my glass of] wine.”

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